The Forest Fire

On display

The power and beauty of nature are depicted in this extensive landscape as the terrifying spectacle of a burning forest creates fear and panic among birds, animals and human beings. The treatment of the fire is remarkable, with white-hot, exploding tree trunks, burning branches, flames licking at foliage and smoky, charred remnants. Distant views open out on either side, with the effects of the fire evident in the lines of fleeing animals and the wheeling birds in the sky; on the right human habitation is threatened. More striking is the range of animals and birds depicted: wild and domestic, growling, roaring and calling. Among them a deer and a pig mysteriously have the heads of satyrs, legendary inhabitants of the forests.

Born in Florence, Piero di Cosimo (1462–1522) is recorded in the studio of the painter Cosimo Rosselli in 1480, from whom he took his second name. He was renowned for his fantasy and inventiveness, and his patrons in Florence enjoyed his playful or strange variations on mythical or classical themes. He made a number of paintings that featured forest fires, with men, satyrs, centaurs and wild animals. They were inspired by ideas about primitive man and the beginning of communal life found in classical literature, notably De Rerum Natura (On the Nature of the Universe) by the Roman philosopher Lucretius (c. 99–55 BC).

The satyrs’ heads on the deer and pig may suggest the wildness of the distant past. The singling out of these animals may alternatively be witty references to family emblems. The heads were added by Piero at a late stage in the painting process.


  • Title

    The Forest Fire

  • Artist/maker

    Piero di Cosimo (1462 - 1522)
  • Associated place

    Europe (place of creation)
  • Date

    c. 1505
  • Material and technique

    oil on panel

  • Object type

  • Dimensions

    71.2 x 202 cm (height x width)
  • No. of items


  • Credit line

    Presented by the Art Fund, 1933.

  • Museum location

    Second floor | Gallery 43 | Italian Renaissance
  • Museum department

    Western Art

  • Accession no.


  • Our online collection is being continually updated. Find out more

    Know more about this object? Spotted an error? Contact us

Further reading

Lloyd, Christopher, Catalogue of the Earlier Italian Paintings in the Ashmolean Museum (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1977), pp. 147-51

Piper, David, and Christopher White, Treasures of the Ashmolean Museum: An Illustrated Souvenir of the Collections, revised edn (Oxford: Ashmolean Museum, 1995), no. 51 on p. 53, illus. p. 53 fig. 51

Whistler, Catherine and Bomford, David, The Forest Fire by Piero di Cosimo (Oxford, 1999) (Oxford, 1999), ---, ---, illus. p.2

Franklin, D., Painting in Renaissance Florence 1500-1550 (New Haven and London, 2001), ---, pp. 49-50, illus. ---

Reference URL

q-seffron-icon q-white-icon pluse-seffron-icon pluse-white-icon minus-seffron-icon minus-white-icon close-seffron-icon close-white-icon close-black-icon prv-gry-arrow prv-arrow print-seffron-icon print-black-icon next-arrow next-gry-arrow next-white-arrow up-arrow-black up-arrow black-up-arrow black-down-arrow white-up-arrow white-down-arrow hr-list-gry-icon hr-list-white-icon vr-list-gry-icon vr-list-white-icon eye-icon zoomin-icon zoomout-icon fullview-icon contact-black-icon contact-seffron-icon basket-seffron-icon basket-black-icon share-black-icon share-seffron-icon go-arrow search-white-icon